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中国生态环境质量现状及2016—2023年动态变化分析
Analysis on Current Situation of the Eco-Environment Quality and Its Dynamic Changes from 2016 to 2023 in China
投稿时间:2024-06-03  修订日期:2024-06-20
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2024.03.01
中文关键词:  生态环境质量  环境空气  地表水  声环境  生态质量  变化趋势
英文关键词:eco-environment quality  ambient air  surface water  acoustic environment  ecological quality  change trends
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2023YFF1303705);国家自然科学基金资助项目(U2243206)
作者单位
马广文 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
张凤英 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
牛丽楠 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
董贵华 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
高逸飞 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
解鑫 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
孟晓艳 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
何立环 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
林兰钰* 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
通讯作者:林兰钰*  中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012  
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中文摘要:
      以国家生态环境监测网数据为基础,分析2023年中国生态环境质量状况及2016年以来的变化特征。结果表明:2023年中国生态环境质量保持优良水平,其中,环境空气优良天数比例为85.5%,优良水质断面比例为89.4%,功能区声环境昼间和夜间达标率分别为96.1%和87.0%,生态质量指数为59.6;2016—2023年生态环境质量持续改善,其中,环境空气优良天数比例上升2.4个百分点,优良水质断面比例上升21.6个百分点,功能区声环境昼间和夜间达标率分别上升3.9个、13.0个百分点。但各生态环境要素质量在部分区域、特定时段不容乐观,京津冀及周边地区、汾渭平原空气质量总体水平仍低于全国平均水平,颗粒物和臭氧浓度偏高;个别流域仍为轻度污染,优良水质断面比例远低于全国水平,某些流域仍存在劣Ⅴ类水质断面,化学需氧量、总磷和高锰酸盐指数是地表水中的主要超标指标;声环境1类和4a类功能区夜间达标率仍相对较低;新疆中北部和甘肃西部地区仍有部分县域生态质量为四类或五类,生态脆弱的情况尚未得到根本改善。随着生态环境污染治理进入攻坚期,控制污染增量的边际成本增加,生态环境质量进一步改善的难度越来越大。
英文摘要:
      Based on the data from the China national eco-environment quality monitoring network,the status of eco-environment quality and its change characteristics since 2016 were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that the eco-environment quality of China maintained excellence in 2023. The average percentage of days meeting air quality standard was 85. 5%, the proportion of Grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ standard water quality section(site) was 89. 4%. The acoustic environment for functional zones met the standard during daytime and nighttime were 96. 1% and 87. 0% respectively. The national Ecological Quality Index was 59. 6 in 2023. The eco-environment quality of China continued to improve from 2016 to 2023. The average percentage of days meeting air quality standard showed an increase of 2.4 percentage points from 2016. The proportion of Grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ standard water quality section(site) was increased by 21.6 percentage points compared with that of 2016. The acoustic environment for functional zones met the standard during daytime and nighttime were increased by 3.9 and 13.0 percentage points compared with that of 2016,respectively. However,the quality of various ecological environmental elements was not optimistic in some regions and specific periods. The air quality in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding areas,as well as in the Fenwei Plain, was generally below the national average,with higher concentrations of particulate matters and ozone. The individual basin still experienced light pollution,with a significantly lower proportion of sections with good water quality compared to the national level. There were still sections with water quality inferior to Grade V in some basins, with chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus,and permanganate index being the main exceedance indicators in surface water. The night compliance rates for acoustic environment in Class 1 and Class 4a functional zones were still relatively low. In the central and northern parts of Xinjiang and the western part of Gansu, some counties still had ecological quality classified as Category Ⅳ and Ⅴ, and the fragile ecological situation had not been fundamentally improved. As environmental pollution control enters a crucial and challenging phase,the marginal cost of controlling pollution increases, making it increasingly difficult to further improve the quality of the ecological environment.
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