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贵州煤矿区表层水-沉积物重金属分布特征及来源分析——以新寨河为例
Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Heavy Metals in Surface Water-Sediment Within Guizhou Coal Mining Area: The Case Study of Xinzhai River
投稿时间:2022-03-01  修订日期:2022-05-30
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2023.04.14
中文关键词:  新寨河  重金属  分布特征  污染评价  源解析
英文关键词:Xinzhai River  heavy metal  distribution characteristics  pollution assessment  source apportionment
基金项目:
作者单位
曾昭婵 贵州省生态环境监测中心, 贵州 贵阳 550000 
曾昭朝 云南林业职业技术学院, 云南 昆明 650224 
胡佳佳* 贵州省生态环境监测中心, 贵州 贵阳 550000 
通讯作者:胡佳佳*  贵州省生态环境监测中心, 贵州 贵阳 550000  
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中文摘要:
      为探索贵州煤矿区表层水-沉积物中重金属的分布特征及来源,科学制定环境保护与污染治理措施,以新寨河为研究对象,在11个样点共采集66个表层水体和沉积物样品,通过对Cd、Pb、Cr、Zn、Cu、As、Hg、Fe、Mn等9种重金属元素进行分析,揭示其在新寨河的空间分布特征。同时,利用多指数法开展了有毒重金属元素污染状况评价,通过相关性分析和主成分分析解析了重金属的来源。结果表明,新寨河流域表层水体中,Fe、Mn点位超标率达100%。表层水中重金属元素的平均含量排序为Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>As>Cd>Pb>Hg,而沉积物中重金属元素的平均含量排序则是Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>As>Pb>Cd>Hg,表明新寨河表层水体和沉积物中重金属元素的空间分布存在一定差异。各重金属元素的内梅罗综合污染指数介于0.59~1.13之间,表明新寨河表层水体中重金属的污染程度达到轻微污染水平。单种重金属元素的潜在生态危害系数计算结果显示,90.91%和9.09%的沉积物样点分别被归类为轻微风险和中等风险。所有样点沉积物的潜在生态危害指数介于14.57~120.55之间(均值为72.08),表明新寨河沉积物的潜在生态风险较低。Cu、As在多个样点存在污染现象,需予以重点监控管理。新寨河流域重金属的来源可分为三大类:Cd、Pb、Cr、Zn、Cu为第一类,对应地表径流源;As、Fe、Mn为第二类,对应煤矿开采源;Hg为第三类,对应复合源。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the distribution characteristics and source of heavy metals in surface water-sediment within Guizhou coal mining area,scientifically formulate environmental protection and governance measures,Xinzhai River was selected as the research object.A total of 66 samples of surface water and sediment were collected from 11 sampling sites.Spatial distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (Cd,Pb,Cr,Zn,Cu,As,Hg,Fe,Mn) were analyzed,and multi-index method was used to evaluate the pollution of 7 heavy metals (Cd,Pb,Cr,Zn,Cu,As,Hg).Source identifiction of heavy metals was carried out by using correlation and principal component analysis.The results showed that the point excess rate of Fe and Mn in surface water was 100%.The order of average content of heavy metals in surface water was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>As>Cd>Pb>Hg,while the order in sediment was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>As>Pb>Cd>Hg,which informed that there were some differences in spatial distribution of heavy metals in surface water and sediment of Xinzhai River.Nemerow comprehensive pollution index was between 0.59 and 1.13,indicating that heavy metal pollution in surface water of Xinzhai River reached a slight pollution level.Individual potential ecological risk index showed that 90.91% and 9.09% of sediment samples were classified as slight risk and medium risk,respectively.The potential ecological risk index of sediments in all sampling sites ranged from 14.57 to 120.55 (mean value was 72.08),informing that the potential ecological risk of sediments for Xinzhai River was low.Cu and As were polluted at many points and needed to be monitored and managed.The source of heavy metals in Xinzhai River could be divided into three categories:Cd,Pb,Cr,Zn,and Cu were the first category,which were classified as surface runoff source;As,Fe,Mn were the second category,which belonged to coal mining source;Hg was the third category that was defined as a composite source.
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