设为首页 加入收藏 登录旧版
2011—2021年全国地表水环境质量评价与变化分析
Assessment and Change Analysis of National Surface Water Environmental Quality in 2011-2021
投稿时间:2022-12-17  修订日期:2023-02-16
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2023.04.03
中文关键词:  全国地表水环境  水质改善  面源污染
英文关键词:national surface water environment  water quality improvement  non-point source-pollution
基金项目:
作者单位
解鑫 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012
中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院, 北京 100083 
尤佳艺* 江苏省环境监测中心, 江苏 南京 210019 
李文攀 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012
中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院, 北京 100083 
白雪 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
王业耀 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012
中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院, 北京 100083 
杨琦 中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院, 北京 100083 
通讯作者:尤佳艺*  江苏省环境监测中心, 江苏 南京 210019  
摘要点击次数: 796
全文下载次数: 347
中文摘要:
      根据国家地表水监测网2011—2021年水环境监测数据,从全国、十大流域主要江河、重要湖库3个层面分析了我国地表水环境质量变化趋势及当前存在问题,并提出相关建议。分析结果显示,2011—2021年,我国地表水环境质量逐步改善。其中,2021年Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质断面比例较2011年提高了35.2个百分点,劣Ⅴ类水质断面比例较2011年降低了11.4个百分点。高锰酸盐指数、氨氮和总磷指标浓度呈现明显的下降趋势;总氮呈现先降后升再降的变化趋势,且目前仍处于较高水平。长江、珠江、浙闽片河流、西北诸河及西南诸河流域水质优于淮河、黄河、海河、辽河及松花江流域。十大流域主要江河水环境质量均有所改善,改善幅度最大的是海河流域。重要湖库水质状况有所好转,但富营养化情况未有明显改善。年内水环境质量方面,夏季水质明显劣于其他季节,表明当前我国面源污染防治存在明显短板。建议在明确当前水环境质量改善取得积极成效的同时,也应当意识到我国水生态环境保护面临的结构性、根源性压力尚未得到根本缓解,不能停留在过去的以水环境质量改善为核心的污染治理思路上,应从生态系统整体性和流域系统性出发,坚持山水林田湖草沙生命共同体理念,从"三水统筹"的角度加强对水域生态系统的整体保护。
英文摘要:
      According to the water environment monitoring data of the National Surface Water Monitoring Network from 2011 to 2021,this paper analyzed the change trend and existing problems from the aspects of major rivers,important lakes and reservoirs in the country and the basin,and puts forward relevant suggestions.The results showed that the overall water environment in China had gradually improved.In 2021,the proportion of Class Ⅰ to Class Ⅲ water quality sections increased by 35.2% compared with that in 2011,and the proportion of Class Ⅴ water quality sections decreased by 11.4% compared with that in 2011;CODCr,NH3-N,TP showed a significant downward trend,and TN showed a trend of falling first,then rising,then falling,which was still at a high level.In space,the water quality of the Yangtze River,Pearl River,Zhejiang Fujian rivers,northwest rivers and southwest rivers was better than that of the Huaihe River,Yellow River,Haihe River,Liaohe River and Songhua River basins,and the water environment of the main rivers in the ten major basins improved,with the Haihe River basin having the largest improvement.The water quality of important lakes and reservoirs improved,but the eutrophication did not improve significantly.From the perspective of water quality in 2021,water quality in summer was significantly worse than that in other seasons,indicating that there were obvious weaknesses in the prevention and control of non-point source pollution in China.It is suggested that while the current improvement of water environment quality has achieved positive results,we should also know that water ecological environment's structural pressure has not been fundamentally alleviated,and we should not stay in the past pollution control with quality improvement as the core.We should start from the integrity of the ecosystem and the systematicness of the river basin,adhere to the concept of "a community of life of mountains,rivers,forests,fields,lakes and grasses",strengthen the overall protection of water ecosystem from the perspective of "three water coordination".
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器