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杭州秋冬季PM2.5污染特征分析
Analysis of Pollution Characteristics of PM2.5 in Hangzhou in Autumn and Winter
投稿时间:2020-11-18  修订日期:2021-06-16
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.06.11
中文关键词:  PM2.5  污染过程  污染特征  化学组分  污染来源
英文关键词:PM2.5  pollution processes  pollution characteristics  chemical compositions  pollution source
基金项目:杭州市农业科研自主申报项目(20170533B15)
作者单位
严仁嫦 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
林旭 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
金嘉佳 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
许凯儿 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
叶辉 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
何曦 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
沈建东* 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
何纪平 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
张海洋 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012 
通讯作者:沈建东*  杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310012  
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中文摘要:
      为研究杭州PM2.5污染来源特征,利用2013—2019年杭州市PM2.5监测数据和气象观测数据,分析了杭州市2013—2019年PM2.5浓度变化,选取本地积累型和输入型2种PM2.5污染过程,结合单颗粒气溶胶飞行时间质谱仪(SPAMS)和在线离子色谱数据,探讨杭州市PM2.5化学组分和污染来源。结果表明:每年秋冬季(11月至次年3月)杭州以东北风、西北风及偏南风为主,风速低于4 m/s时,大气扩散条件差,受本地污染物积累影响,PM2.5浓度容易出现超标;风速较大且为东北风和西北风时,受上游污染输入影响,易出现PM2.5重度污染。本地积累型和输入型案例中,PM2.5化学组分中占比最大的为NO3-、SO42-和NH4+;PM2.5浓度上升过程中,二次NO3-和SO42-转换率明显上升,其中NO3-上升更为显著,二次气溶胶污染严重。2次案例中,PM2.5来源贡献占比前3位均为机动车尾气源、燃煤源和工业工艺源,其中本地积累型PM2.5浓度上升阶段,机动车尾气源占比会明显上升;输入型案例中,输入阶段机动车尾气源占比显著上升,燃煤源贡献也小幅上升。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the pollution characteristics and sources apportionment of PM2.5 in Hangzhou,the national environmental monitoring PM2.5 data and meteorological data of Hangzhou during 2013-2019 were used to analyze the changes characteristics of PM2.5 concentration in the past five years.And two typical PM2.5 pollution processes,local origin and external input,were collected and analyzed for PM2.5 chemical composition and pollution source by use a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and ion chromatography analyzer data.The results showed that high PM2.5 episodes usually occurred in autumn and winter,during the period from November to the following March,because of the pollutants accumulation when the wind speed was lower than 4 m/s.If the wind speed was large and the wind direction was northeast or northwest,it was also prone to occur PM2.5 heavy pollution due to pollutants transportation.In both of local accumulation and import cases,the largest proportions of PM2.5 chemical components were NO3-,SO42- and NH4+.And the conversion rate of secondary NO3- and SO42- increased significantly during the increase of PM2.5 concentration.The increase of NO3- was more remarkable,and the secondary aerosol pollution was serious in Hangzhou.The source characteristics of PM2.5 indicated that the top three pollution sources contributed by PM2.5 in Hangzhou were vehicle exhaust,coal combustion and industrial process respectively.In the local accumulation case,the proportion of motor vehicle exhaust increased significantly when the PM2.5 concentration rose;and in the imported case,the proportion of motor vehicle exhaust increased significantly,and the contribution of coal-fired sources also increased slightly.
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