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北京2019年国庆假日及随后一个星期PM2.5中金属元素来源分析
Source Analysis of Metal Elements in PM2.5 During the National Day Holiday and the Following Week in Beijing in 2019
投稿时间:2020-07-24  修订日期:2020-09-16
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.06.09
中文关键词:  PM2.5  金属元素  污染特征  来源分析
英文关键词:PM2.5  metal element  pollution characteristics  source analysis
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0706004)
作者单位
王丽丽 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
武高峰 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
孙爽 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
武志宏 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
杨阳 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
赵文吉* 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048 
通讯作者:赵文吉*  首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048  
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中文摘要:
      2019年10月1—14日,采集了北京五环内14份城区大气PM2.5样品。用微波消解-电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测试了样品中15种金属元素的质量浓度。结果表明:2019年国庆假日(10月1—7日)及随后一个星期(10月8—14日),北京五环内城区PM2.5中15种金属元素的质量浓度总和分别为7 206、8 025.4 ng/m3。2个时段Na、K、Ca、Al占比较高,4种元素的质量浓度之和分别占元素总质量浓度的88.9%、83.5%。富集因子分析表明:2个研究时段内,北京城区Se、Cd均呈高度富集状态,受人为污染影响最大。根据因子分析结果以及各类污染源的标识元素判断,2个时段内,PM2.5中的金属元素均来自地壳(土壤尘和建筑尘)、生物质燃烧、机动车排放、燃煤和工业排放的混合源。潜在源因子分析结果表明:国庆假日北京城区Se、Cd、Pb、Cr主要来源于河北、山东两省中部地区的区域性输送,Zn和Cu主要来源于北京周边工业排放源和城区机动车排放源;国庆假日之后,北京城区Se、Zn、Cd、Pb、Cr、Cu除受廊坊-天津-唐山污染带的区域性传输影响外,还受北京周边燃煤源、工业排放源及本地机动车排放源的共同影响。
英文摘要:
      A total of 14 PM2.5 samples were continuously collected from October 1 to 14,2019 in the urban city of Beijing Fifth Ring Road.Then,15 kinds of metal elements’ mass concentrations were measured by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).The results showed that the total concentrations of 15 metal elements in PM2.5 in the urban city of Beijing Fifth Ring Road during the National Day Holiday (October 1-7) in 2019 and the following days (October 8-14) were 7206 ng/m3 and 8025.4 ng/m3 respectively,the concentrations of Na,K,Ca and Al were the highest,accounting for 88.9% and 83.5% of total elements respectively.Enrichment factor analysis showed that both Se and Cd in Beijing urban area were highly enriched during the two study periods,and were most affected by human pollution.According to the results of factor analysis and the identification of various pollution sources,the metal elements in PM2.5 in the two periods all came from the mixed sources of the earth’s crust (soil dust and construction dust),biomass burning,motor vehicles,coal combustion and industrial emissions.The results of potential source contribution function showed that during the National Day Holidays,Se,Cd,Pb and Cr in Beijing urban area were mainly from regional transportation in central cities of Hebei and Shandong,while Zn and Cu were mainly from industrial emission sources around Beijing and urban motor vehicle sources.During the following seven days,Se,Zn,Cd,Pb,Cr and Cu in Beijing urban area were not only affected by the regional transmission of the pollution zone from Langfang-Tianjin-Tangshan,but also affected by the coal burning sources,industrial emission sources and local motor vehicle sources around Beijing.
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