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北京市城区挥发性有机物污染特征及其对臭氧影响分析
Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds and Its Impact on O3 Formation in Beijing Urban Area
投稿时间:2021-08-31  修订日期:2021-10-09
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.06.03
中文关键词:  臭氧  挥发性有机物  臭氧生成潜势  来源解析
英文关键词:O3  VOCs  ozone formation potential  source apportionment
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0213203);O3和PM2.5复合污染协同防控科技攻关项目(DQGG202001)
作者单位
梁思远 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
王帅 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
高松 上海市环境监测中心, 上海 200235 
柴文轩 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
黄卫明 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
赵月 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
唐桂刚* 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
通讯作者:唐桂刚*  中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012  
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中文摘要:
      对2020年4月—2021年3月北京市建成区挥发性有机物(VOCs)的化学特征、污染来源及其对臭氧(O3)污染的影响进行了研究。结果显示:O3日最大8 h滑动平均值在臭氧季(4—9月)均值为134 μg/m3,是非臭氧季(10月至次年3月)均值(59.6 μg/m3)的2.2倍。臭氧季VOCs体积浓度均值为14.3×10-9,明显低于非臭氧季(21.1×10-9),可能与光化学反应速率和VOCs来源的季节性差异有关。臭氧生成潜势(OFP)贡献率排名前10位的物种在臭氧季和非臭氧季相似,均包括间/对-二甲苯、甲苯、乙烯、邻二甲苯、异戊烷、正丁烷、丙烯、反式-2-丁烯和1,2,4-三甲基苯,但排名有所差异,燃煤源特征明显的乙烯等物种在非臭氧季上升明显,与溶剂使用、油气挥发相关的间/对二甲苯、甲苯、异戊烷和正丁烷等物种在臭氧季上升明显。甲苯/苯的值和异戊烷/正戊烷的值在臭氧季明显高于非臭氧季,反映出机动车排放和油气挥发等在臭氧季影响突出,非臭氧季是燃煤影响显著。基于正交矩阵因子分解模型(PMF),臭氧季解析出机动车尾气排放(40.9%)、溶剂使用(20%)、油气挥发(16.4%)、工业排放(17.6%)和植物排放(5.1%)等5种污染源;非臭氧季解析出机动车尾气(38.9%)、燃烧源(26.3%)、工业排放(17.8%)和溶剂使用(17%)等4种污染源。
英文摘要:
      The chemical characteristics and sources of VOCs,and their impacts on O3 formation during April 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing urban area were investigated.The results showed that the daily maximum 8-h average O3 in the high O3 periods (April to September) was 134 μg/m3,which was 2.2 times of it in the low O3 periods (October to March).The average VOCs mixing ratio in the high O3 period was 14.3×10-9,lower than it in the low O3 periods (21.1×10-9),which could be attributed to the seasonal difference of the photochemical reaction rates and pollution sources.Based on ozone formation potential (OFP),the top 10 VOC species were similar in the high O3 period and the low O3 period,both of which included m,p-Xylene,Toluene,Ethylene,o-Xylene,i-Pentane,n-Butane,Propylene,trans-2-Butene,and 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene,but with different ranks.VOC species such as ethylene with obvious characteristics of coal combustion sources increased greatly in the low O3 period,while species such as m/p-xylene,toluene,i-pentane,and n-butane,which are related to solvent usage and fuel volatilization,increased obviously in the high O3 period.Compared to the high O3 period,the ratio of toluene/benzene and i-pentane/n-pentane decreased in the low O3 period,indicating the important influence of vehicle exhaust and fuel volatilization in the high O3 period and the increasing influence of coal combustion in the low O3 period.According to the PMF results,five sources were identified in the high O3 period,including vehicle exhaust (40.9%),solvent usage (20%),fuel volatilization (16.4%),industrial emissions (17.6%),and plant emissions (5.1%);four sources were identified in the low O3 period,including vehicle exhaust (38.9%),coal combustion (26.3%),industrial emissions (17.8%),and solvent usage (17%).
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