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中国典型河口湿地底栖动物优势类群比较
Comparative on Dominant Groups of Typical Estuarine Macroinvertebrates in China
投稿时间:2020-02-17  修订日期:2020-05-13
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.03.17
中文关键词:  河口湿地  盐度  底栖动物
英文关键词:estuarine wetlands  salinity  macroinvertebrates
基金项目:水利部行业科技计划项目"全国重要江河湖泊生态流量(水位)保护"(126301001000160014-2);湖南省科技重大专项课题(2018SK1010)
作者单位
王天慈 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100089 
王芳 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100089 
渠晓东* 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100089 
通讯作者:渠晓东*  中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100089  
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中文摘要:
      河口湿地大型底栖动物是重要的初级消费者,对于维持河口湿地生态系统结构和功能具有重要作用。中国南北不同气候带的河口湿地因具有独特的温盐条件,形成了不同的底栖动物群落。根据已有研究分析发现,中国河口湿地底栖动物存在明显的潮汐分带规律和南北温度分区差异。潮上带:盐度<6‰的华北暖温带河口以昆虫纲占优势,伴生环节动物和软体动物;盐度<2‰的亚热带季风区河口以甲壳纲占优势,出现水生昆虫幼虫;盐度为0‰~5‰的亚热带-热带河口以多毛纲为主,伴生甲壳纲和软体动物。潮间、潮下带:华北暖温带河口由节肢动物的昆虫纲过渡到甲壳纲,高潮带以甲壳纲占优势,伴有多毛纲和少量软体动物;潮间带中低潮滩5‰~25‰盐度范围内以软体动物为主,仅伴生种存在差异。亚热带季风区河口盐度2‰~5‰的中低潮滩以甲壳纲和软体动物占优势,在潮下带盐渍藻类区主要分布软体动物和部分甲壳纲。亚热带-热带河口盐度7.5‰~21‰的秋茄群落和盐度11‰~15‰的桐花树群落中均以甲壳纲和多毛纲为主,伴生腹足纲、寡毛纲和棘皮动物;盐度8.8‰~17.5‰的白骨壤群落中以腹足纲占优势,伴生甲壳纲、多毛纲和棘皮动物。目前针对中国河口海岸最北端鸭绿江口的调查研究较少,且对河口潮下带的研究多集中于长江口范围,其余河口潮下带则多并入海洋底栖动物的调查研究,缺乏针对潮下带的专门分析,因此需加强中温带鸭绿江口不同潮带底栖动物的调查,并增加各海岸河口潮下带的底栖动物针对性调查,以期明确河口冲淡水对底栖动物类群及分布的影响。
英文摘要:
      Benthic macroinvertebrates are important primary consumers in estuarine wetlands,playing crucial roles in maintaining the structure and function of estuarine wetland ecosystem. Due to the unique temperature and salinity conditions,different macroinvertebrate communities have been formed in estuarine wetlands of different climatic zones in China. Summarized from previous studies,we found that macroinvertebrates communities in estuary showed distinct patterns associated to tidal zones and temperature zones. The supratidal zone of estuaries in the warm temperate zone of North China with a salinity <6‰ was dominated by aquatic insects with Annelida and mollusks as accompanying taxa. The supratidal zone of estuaries in the sub-tropical monsoon areas with a salinity <2‰ was dominated by Crustaceans with presence of aquatic insect larvae. The supratidal zone of subtropical-tropical estuaries where salinity is 0‰-5‰ was dominated by Polychaetes with Crustaceans and mollusks as accompanying taxa. In the estuarine wetlands in warm temperate zone of North China,the intertidal and subtidal zones were dominated by Crustaceans, the high tide zone was dominated by Crustaceans with presence of Polychaetes and a few mollusks,while the middle-lower intertidal marsh with a salinity between 5‰-25‰ was dominated by mollusks with difference in accompanying taxa. In the middle-lower intertidal marsh with a salinity of 2‰-5‰ and the subtidal saline algae marsh in the subtropical monsoon zone,Crustaceans and mollusks were the dominant taxa. In the subtropical-tropical estuaries with the Kandelia candel community at the salinity of 7.5‰-21‰ as well as with the Aegiceras corniculatum community at the salinity of 11‰-15‰,Crustaceans and Polychaetes were the dominant taxa,accompanied by Gastropods, Oligochaetes, and Echinoderms. In the subtropical-tropical estuaries with Avicennia marina community at the salinity of 8.8‰-17.5‰,Gastropods were the dominates taxa accompanied by Crustaceans, Polychaetes, and Echinoderms.However,there are few studies on Yalu estuary,the northernmost coastal estuary in China. Current studies on the subtidal zone of estuaries in China are mainly focused on the Yangtze estuary. The subtidal zone studies on the other estuaries are usually incorporated into the marine investigation. Thus,in order to clarify the influences of the freshwater on macroinvertebrates in estuaries in China,it is necessary to enhance the investigation of macroinvertebrates in different tidal zones in the Yalu estuary as well as the subtidal zone in all estuaries.
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