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黄河流域水质和工业污染源研究
Water Quality Status and Industrial Pollution Sources in the Yellow River Basin
投稿时间:2020-07-03  修订日期:2020-11-13
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.03.03
中文关键词:  黄河流域  水质指数  工业水污染物排放  企业环境信用
英文关键词:the Yellow River Basin  water quality index  industrial water pollutant discharge  corporate environmental credit
基金项目:
作者单位
刘鸿志 中国环境科学学会, 北京 100082 
王光镇 中国环境科学学会, 北京 100082 
马军 公众环境研究中心, 北京 100062 
闫政* 中国环境科学学会, 北京 100082 
沈苏南 公众环境研究中心, 北京 100062 
通讯作者:闫政*  中国环境科学学会, 北京 100082  
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中文摘要:
      为科学评价黄河流域的水质状况及工业企业污染源现状,根据黄河流域2018—2019年地表水和饮用水水源地水质监测数据,建立了综合反映流域水环境质量和可定量分析排名的城市水质指数;利用大数据技术分析工业企业水污染物排放数据,研究建立了企业环境信用动态评价体系。研究结果表明:2018—2019年,黄河流域城市水环境质量得到一定程度的改善,城市地表水环境质量优和良等级数量从17个增加到19个,饮用水水源地优等级城市数量从7个增加到11个;但黄河流域中游地区水污染问题较为严重,需要重点加强水污染控制。水质污染主要以点源工业污染为主,COD和氨氮排放量较多,COD和氨氮年日均排放浓度平均值分别为51.1、3.1 mg/L,工业废水处理率偏低;山西、陕西、河南等"高"风险企业数量较多,分别达到3 047、1 630、1 442家。建议加强黄河流域上下游、左右岸、干支流协同配合,加大水污染防治工作的深度和力度。
英文摘要:
      To scientifically evaluate the status of water quality and the pollution sources of industrial enterprises in the Yellow River Basin,based on the monitoring data of surface water and drinking water source areas of the Yellow River Basin from 2018 to 2019,a city water quality index that comprehensively reflects the water environment quality of the river basin and can be quantitatively analyzed and ranked was established. The water pollutant discharge data of industrial enterprises was analyzed using big data technology,and then a dynamic evaluation system of corporate environmental credit was established. The research results showed that:From 2018 to 2019,the urban water environment quality of the Yellow River Basin was improved to a certain extent. The number of urban surface water environmental quality "excellent" and "good" levels increased from 17 to 19,and the number of "excellent" cities for drinking water sources increased from 7 to 11.However,water pollution problems in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin were more serious,and water pollution control needed to be strengthened.Water quality pollution was mainly caused by point source industrial pollution. COD and ammonia nitrogen discharge were relatively large. The daily average discharge concentrations of COD and ammonia nitrogen in 2019 were 51.1 and 3.1 mg/L,respectively,the industrial wastewater treatment rate was low.The number of high risk enterprises in Shanxi,Shaanxi,Henan reached 3047,1630 and 1442,respectively. It was recommended to strengthen the coordination of the upper and lower reaches,left and right banks,main and tributaries of the Yellow River Basin,and increase the depth and intensity of water pollution prevention and control.
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