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“十三五”期间中国生态环境质量变化特征
Characteristics of Eco-environmental Quality Changes in China During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period
投稿时间:2021-04-12  修订日期:2021-05-20
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2021.03.01
中文关键词:  生态环境质量  变化特征  环境空气  地表水
英文关键词:eco-environmental quality  change characteristics  ambient air  surface water
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0500205)
作者单位
张凤英 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
周密 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
李一龙 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
林兰钰 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
马广文 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
何立环 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
陈善荣* 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
通讯作者:陈善荣*  中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012  
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中文摘要:
      以国家生态环境监测网监测结果为基础,总结归纳了"十三五"时期中国生态环境质量变化特征和主要环境问题。结果表明:"十三五"期间,全国生态环境质量全面好转,2020年环境空气优良天数比例比"十二五"末期上升5.8个百分点;地表水总体水质由轻度污染转为良好,Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质断面比例上升17.4个百分点,劣V类断面比例下降9.0个百分点;酸雨污染程度减轻,海洋等环境要素质量稳中向好。但与此同时,后续改善难度加大,全国仍有40%地级及以上城市空气质量超标,4.8%的国土面积发生酸雨,辽河和海河流域仍是轻度污染,部分河流污染较重,地下水以IV类水质为主,农村饮用水源地和地表水水质均受到不同程度污染,近三分之一国土面积县域生态质量为较差和差。总体来看,当前生态环境质量与人民对美好生态环境的需求和美丽中国目标的实现还有较大差距。逐年上升的能源消费总量和不断增长的汽车保有量,增加了生态环境质量继续改善的压力。
英文摘要:
      Based on the monitoring results of the national eco-environmental monitoring network,the characteristics of eco-environmental quality changes during the 13th Five-Year Plan period were summarized and the main environmental problems were concluded. The results showed that since the start of the 13th Five-Year Plan,the eco-environmental quality in China has been improved in an all-round way. Compared with the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan,the average percentage of days of the 337 cities meeting air quality standard was increased by 5.8 percentage points.The overall surface water quality changed from mild pollution to good,the proportion of Grade I-III water quality section(site) increased by 17.4 percentage points,and the proportion of Grade V water quality section decreased by 9.0 percentage points.Acid rain pollution degree was reduced,and environmental factors such as ocean were stable and improved. But at the same time,it is more difficult to improve in the future,the air quality of 40% of the cities in China still exceeded the air quality standard,acid rain occurred in 4.8% of the land area,the Liaohe and the Haihe river basins were still slightly polluted,and some rivers were heavily polluted,the groundwater quality was mainly Grade IV,the water quality of drinking water sources and surface water in rural areas was polluted to varying degrees,the ecological quality in nearly one third of the land area in China was relatively poor and poor. Overall,there is still a big gap between the current eco-environment and the people’s demand for a better eco-environment and the goal of beautiful China. At the same time,the increasing total energy consumption and the increasing car ownership increase the challenge and pressure of the continuous improvement on the eco-environment quality.
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