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2016—2019年汾渭平原城市空气质量状况分析
Analysis of Air Quality in Fenwei Plain from 2016 to 2019
投稿时间:2020-04-05  修订日期:2020-08-10
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.06.10
中文关键词:  汾渭平原  空气质量  PM2.5  O3  2016—2019年
英文关键词:Fenwei Plain  air quality  PM2.5  O3  from 2016 to 2019
基金项目:国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项"臭氧污染态势与演变规律研究"(2017YFC0212800)
作者单位
王胜杰 中国气象局气象发展与规划院, 北京 100081 
解淑艳* 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
王军霞 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
霍晓芹 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
汪巍 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
杜丽 中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012 
通讯作者:解淑艳*  中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012  
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中文摘要:
      基于2016—2019年全国城市环境空气质量国控监测点位自动监测数据,分析了汾渭平原城市空气质量状况。结果表明:2019年,汾渭平原优良天数比例为61.7%,略高于"2+26"城市,明显低于全国及其他区域,空气污染较重。2016—2019年,汾渭平原超标天数中PM2.5、PM10、O3作为首要污染物的占比较高,PM2.5、PM10仍是影响汾渭平原空气质量的最主要污染物,O3和NO2的影响逐年升高。汾渭平原PM2.5浓度呈夏季低、秋冬季高的特点,2019年与2016—2018年PM2.5均值比较,1、2、4月分别偏高7.5%、36.7%、6.8%,其他月份均偏低,表明1、2、4月空气质量总体恶化,其他月份有所改善。汾渭平原O3浓度呈夏季高、秋冬季低的特点,O3浓度总体呈升高趋势,年平均升高10.3 μg/m3,临汾市年平均升幅最显著(26.7 μg/m3),不同百分位O3浓度均呈升高趋势,且高百分位浓度升幅明显高于低百分位浓度,年平均升幅最高出现在第90百分位浓度。2016—2019年,O3单项污染物超标导致优良天数比例损失分别为5.4个百分点、13.0个百分点、11.1个百分点和14.4个百分点,总体呈上升趋势,表明O3超标对空气质量影响越来越显著。煤炭消耗量、生铁产量、粗钢产量的大幅升高对空气质量有一定影响,建议加大对相关企业污染物的排放量检查,确保超低排放或采取可行的清洁能源替代。温度与O3浓度呈正相关,2017—2019年,温度大于25 ℃的天数中94.2%出现在6—8月,O3-8h超标天数占全部超标天数的81.4%,因此应加强温度较高月份的O3管控。
英文摘要:
      Based on the automatic monitoring data of national monitoring network of urban ambient air quality from 2016 to 2019,the status of urban air quality in Fenwei Plain was analyzed.The results showed that the proportion of excellent days in Fenwei Plain was 61.7% in 2019,slightly higher than that in "2+26" cities,significantly lower than that in the whole country and other regions,and the air pollution was serious.From 2016 to 2019,the proportion of PM2.5,PM10 and O3 as the primary pollutants in the Fenwei plain exceeded the standard,and PM2.5 and PM10 were still the main pollutants affecting the air quality of the Fenwei Plain,and the impact of O3 and NO2 increased year by year.The concentration of PM2.5 in Fenwei Plain was lower in summer and higher in autumn and winter.Compared with the average value of PM2.5 from 2016 to 2018,the average PM2.5 in January,February and April in 2019 was 7.5%,36.7% and 6.8% higher respectively,and the other months were lower,indicating that January,February and April were generally deteriorated,and other months were improved.The concentration of O3 in Fenwei Plain was higher in summer and lower in autumn and winter.The overall trend of O3 concentration was increasing,with an average annual increase of 10.3 μg/m3.The annual average increase of Linfen city was the most significant (26.7 μg/m3).The ozone concentration in different percentiles showed an increasing trend,and the rising amplitude of high percentile concentration was significantly higher than that of low percentile concentration,and the highest annual average increase occurred in 90-percentile concentration.From 2016 to 2019,the proportion loss of excellent days caused by excessive O3 single pollutant was 5.4 percentage point,13.0 percentage point,11.1 percentage point and 14.4 percentage point,respectively,showing an obvious upward trend,indicating that the excessive O3 had an increasing impact on air quality.The large increase of coal consumption,pig iron output and crude steel output had a certain impact on air quality.It is suggested to increase the emission inspection of relevant enterprises to ensure ultra-low emission or adopt feasible clean energy to replace.There was a positive correlation between temperature and O3 concentration.From 2017 to 2019,94.2% of the days with temperature higher than 25 ℃ occurred in June to August.During this period,the days of O3-8h exceeding the standard accounted for 81.4% of all the days exceeding the standard.Therefore,the control of O3 in the month with higher temperature should be strengthened.
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