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杭州市大气VOCs浓度特征及其化学活性研究
Study on the Concentration Characteristics and Chemical Reactivity of Ambient VOCs in Hangzhou
投稿时间:2020-05-06  修订日期:2020-06-10
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.05.11
中文关键词:  挥发性有机物  臭氧  二次有机气溶胶  生成潜势  杭州
英文关键词:volatile organic compounds  ozone  secondary organic aerosol  formation potential  Hangzhou
基金项目:杭州市社会发展科研自主申报项目(20160533B83,20170533B15)
作者单位
沈建东 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007 
叶旭红* 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007 
朱英俊 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007 
许凯儿 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007 
汤晨悦 杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007 
通讯作者:叶旭红*  杭州市环境监测中心站, 浙江 杭州 310007  
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中文摘要:
      2018年4月至2019年3月对杭州市城区大气中117种挥发性有机物(VOCs)开展了为期一年的手工采样观测,分析了VOCs各组分的浓度特征、臭氧生成潜势(OFP)和二次有机气溶胶(SOA)生成潜势。结果显示,观测期杭州市大气VOCs体积分数均值为(56.72±29.56)×10-9,含氧挥发性有机物(OVOCs)、烷烃和卤代烃是其主要组分,分别占33.86%、30.70%、15.73%。VOCs体积分数前10位的物种为丙烷、甲醛、异丁烷、乙烷、乙酸乙酯、二氯甲烷、正丁烷、丙酮、甲苯和1,2-二氯乙烷。杭州市VOCs的OFP为135.18×10-9,各VOCs组分的OFP贡献为OVOCs(45%) > 芳香烃(22%) > 烯烃和炔烃(21%) > 烷烃(11%) > 卤代烃(1%),其中甲醛、乙烯和乙醛是OFP主要贡献者。SOA生成潜势为1.64 μg/m3,芳香烃是最重要的SOA前体物。SOA生成潜势最大的5种VOCs物种为甲苯、对/间二甲苯、乙苯、邻二甲苯和苯,因此控制来自机动车尾气和溶剂使用过程中产生的VOCs可有效降低SOA的生成。通过甲苯与苯体积分数比分析发现,杭州市城区芳香烃除了来自机动车尾气以外,在春、夏季和秋、冬季还分别受到生物质燃烧和涂料溶剂的影响;分析了乙烷与乙炔体积分数比、乙炔与CO体积分数比,发现杭州市气团的老化程度呈现整体较高的特点。
英文摘要:
      117 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient atmosphere of Hangzhou urban area were manually sampled and observed from April 2018 to March 2019.The concentration characteristics of VOCs,ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential were analyzed.The results showed that the average volume fraction of VOCs in Hangzhou was (56.72 ±29.56)×10-9,and the main components were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs),alkanes and halogenated hydrocarbons,accounting for 33.86%,30.70% and 15.73% respectively.Top 10 components of VOCs concentration were propane,formaldehyde,isobutane,ethane,ethyl acetate,dichloromethane,n-butane,acetone,toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane.The OFP of VOCs in Hangzhou was 135.18×10-9 and the OFP contributions of VOCs were OVOCs(45%) > aromatics(22%) > alkynes(21%) > alkanes(11%) > halogenated hydrocarbons(1%).The formaldehyde,ethylene and acetaldehyde were identified as the main contributors of OFP.The formation potential of SOA was 1.64 μg/m3.Aromatic hydrocarbon was the most important precursor of SOA.The top 5 species with the largest contribution to SOA formation were toluene,p/m-xylene,ethylbenzene,o-xylene and benzene,thus controlling VOCs from vehicle exhaust and the use of solvent can effectively reduce the formation of SOA.Through the analysis of toluene/benzene ratio,it was found that the aromatic hydrocarbon in Hangzhou was not only from vehicle exhaust,but also affected by biomass combustion (spring and summer) and coating solvent industry (autumn and winter) with seasonal variations,respectively.The ethane/acetylene and acetylene/CO ratios were also analyzed,and it was found that the aging extent of air mass in Hangzhou was generally high.
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