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2003—2018年全国酸雨状况变化趋势研究
Analysis on Acid Rain Status and Its Change Trends in China from 2003 to 2018
投稿时间:2019-12-31  修订日期:2020-04-08
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.04.10
中文关键词:  酸雨  酸雨面积  酸雨频率  酸雨类型  沉降通量  全国
英文关键词:acid rain  acid rain area  frequency of acid rain  acid rain type  sedimentation flux  China
基金项目:科技部大气污染成因与控制技术研究专项(2018YFC0213203);总理基金专项(DQGG0303)
作者单位
解淑艳 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
王胜杰 中国气象局工程咨询中心,北京 100081 
于洋 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
刘丽 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
张凤英 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
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中文摘要:
      基于2003—2018年全国291个城市降水监测结果的分析表明:全国降水酸度明显降低,其中,2003—2006年有所升高,2006年之后呈降低趋势;酸雨区面积呈减小趋势,共减少约97万km2,酸雨发生频率超过5%的面积减少了20.9个百分点;全国酸雨城市比例为21.3%~40.9%,2009年开始总体呈下降趋势,2018年降为21.6%,重酸雨城市比例在2005年之后总体呈下降趋势;全国平均酸雨频率为11.7%~25.6%,2006年之后总体呈下降趋势,2018年酸雨频率在50%以上的城市比例较2006年下降了13.9个百分点。基于174个城市的降水离子组分分析结果显示:我国降水中的主要阴离子为硫酸根,其离子当量浓度占比为19.4%~32.9%,2003年以来年平均降低0.6个百分点;降水中的主要阳离子为钙离子和铵离子;硫酸根沉降通量年平均下降0.68 t/km2,硝酸根沉降通量年平均降低0.05 t/km2,全国SO2浓度变化趋势与硫酸根沉降通量变化趋势基本一致;我国降水中的硝酸根与硫酸根离子当量浓度比值总体呈升高趋势,表明硝酸根离子对降水酸度的影响逐渐增加,酸雨类型正由硫酸型向硫酸-硝酸混合型转变。
英文摘要:
      Based on the analysis of precipitation monitoring results in 291 cities from 2003 to 2018,the acidity of precipitation in China decreased significantly,which increased from 2003 to 2006,and decreased after 2006.The area and frequency of acid rain in China decreased as a whole.The area of acid rain decreased by about 0.97 million square kilometers,and the area with the frequency of acid rain over 5% decreased by 20.9 percentage points.The proportion of acid rain cities in China was introduced from 21.3% to 40.9%,the proportion of acid rain cities began to decline in 2009,21.6% in 2018,and the proportion of cities with heavy acid rain declined after 2005.The national average acid rain frequency was between 11.7% and 25.6%, and the proportion of cities with acid rain frequency above 50% in 2018 decreased by 13.9% compared with that in 2006.According to the analysis of ion components in 174 cities,the main anion in China's precipitation was sulfate,with the proportion of ion equivalent concentration between 19.4% and 32.9%,which had decreased by 0.6% on average since 2003.The main cations in the precipitation were calcium ion and ammonium ion.The annual average decline of sulfate deposition flux was 0.68 t/km2,and the annual average decline of nitrate precipitation flux was 0.05 t/km2.The trend of SO2 concentration in China was basically the same as that of sulfate deposition.The ratio of equivalent concentration of nitrate and sulfate ion in precipitation in China was generally increasing,which indicated that the influence of nitrate ion on the acidity of precipitation was gradually increasing,and the type of acid rain had been changing from sulfuric acid type to sulfuric acid nitric acid mixed type.
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