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水质标准中指示微生物的发展及现状
Development and Current Status of Microbial Indicators in Water Quality Standards
投稿时间:2019-12-10  修订日期:2020-02-25
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.04.01
中文关键词:  水质监测  指示微生物  大肠菌群  大肠埃希氏菌  肠球菌  水质标准
英文关键词:water quality monitoring  microbial indicator  coliforms  E.coli  Enterococci  water quality standard
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07302-001);国家自然科学基金项目(41977364);北京市优秀人才培养资助项目(2018年)
作者单位
杨蓉 北京市南水北调水质监测中心,北京100093
北京市水科学技术研究院,北京100048 
李垒 北京市水科学技术研究院,北京100048 
霍晓芹 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
袁懋 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
金小伟 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
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中文摘要:
      饮用水病原微生物污染是公共卫生面临的主要威胁之一,微生物监测在水质监测中的必要性日益受到人们的认可。在实际工作中,一般是通过检测指示微生物间接反映病原微生物的存在。通过调研国内外各组织、机构颁布的水质标准发现,近年来,我国环境质量标准和污染物排放标准中对于指示微生物的选择有从总大肠菌群向粪大肠菌群和大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)转变的趋势,而美国环保署、欧盟、世界卫生组织、澳大利亚国家健康与医疗研究委员会等根据最新的流行病学证据,强调了大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)、肠球菌(Enterococci)与粪便污染的相关性更强,可用于替代大肠菌群。建议我国在后续水质标准中对微生物指标进行增补修订时,参考国外经验,形成集成多种指示微生物与多种特定病原体的监测指标体系,以更好地保护环境功能和民众健康。
英文摘要:
      Contamination of pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water is one of major threats to public health,and the necessity of microbial monitoring is increasingly recognized in water quality monitoring.Generally,the presence of pathogenic microorganisms is indirectly known by the detection of microbial indicators.In recent years,the microbial indicators of environmental quality standards and pollutant emission standards in China are converting from total coliforms to fecal coliforms and E.coli. However,microbial indicators of E.coli and Enterococci are considered to be more associated with fecal contamination based on the latest epidemiological evidence,and has been widely used in water quality standards published by U.S.Environment Protection Agency,European Union,World Health Organization,and Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.In the future,foreign experience should be taken into account when development and revision of microbial indicator in water quality standard in China.Monitoring system containing multiple microbial indicators and specific pathogens should be established to further protect environmental functions and public health.
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