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2015—2018年春节期间合肥烟花爆竹燃放对空气质量的影响
Effects of Fireworks on the Air Quality During the Spring Festival of 2015 to 2018 in Hefei City
投稿时间:2019-08-28  修订日期:2019-11-23
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.02.15
中文关键词:  烟花爆竹  颗粒物  重金属  富集因子  激光雷达
英文关键词:fireworks  particulate matter  heavy metals  enrichment factor  Lidar
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0213800);安徽省公益性研究联动计划项目(1704f0804056)
作者单位
赵旭辉 安徽省环境监测中心站,安徽 合肥230071 
童欢欢 合肥工业大学 资源与环境工程学院,安徽 合肥230009 
董昊 安徽省环境监测中心站,安徽 合肥230071 
耿天召 安徽省环境监测中心站,安徽 合肥230071 
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中文摘要:
      根据2015—2018年颗粒物浓度数据、颗粒物组分、激光雷达等资料,分析烟花爆竹燃放对合肥市空气质量的影响。研究发现,随着烟花爆竹禁燃措施力度的加强,2018年合肥市烟花爆竹对空气质量影响较2015—2017年显著下降,2018年春节期间PM10与PM2.5峰值浓度比2017年分别下降44.4%和52.9%,污染峰值容易出现在除夕和初一前后。春节期间合肥市大气污染总体上呈现自东北到西南逐渐减轻的趋势,周边县(市)空气质量的污染程度比城区更加严重。烟花爆竹的燃放导致空气中金属元素浓度和SO42-浓度明显增加,富集因子法发现呈现严重富集重金属元素Sr、Zn、Ba、Cu、Pb、Sn、Sb和其他元素(如K、As)。2018年烟花爆竹禁燃措施力度加强后,K、As、Sn、Sb元素富集程度呈现下降趋势,较高消光系数对应的高度范围较2017年大幅减小,并且污染带厚度显著降低,城区依然可能存在外来污染传输的颗粒物下沉现象,周边大片农村和城乡结合部的烟花爆竹集中燃放同样会导致被其包围的城区空气质量迅速恶化。
英文摘要:
      Based on the data of particulate matter concentration,components of particulate matter and lidar data from 2015 to 2018,this paper analyzed the effects of fireworks on air quality of Hefei. The study found that the impact of fireworks on air quality in Hefei City decreased significantly from 2015 to 2017 with the intensification of anti-combustion measures. The peak concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 decreased by 44.4% and 52.9% respectively during the Spring Festival of 2018 compared with 2017. The pollution peaks were easy to appear around New Year’s Eve and the lunar New Year’s Day. The air pollution in Hefei City showed a trend of decreasing gradually from northeast to southwest,and the air pollution in surrounding counties(county-level cities) was more serious than that in urban areas during the Spring Festival. The concentration of metallic elements and SO42- in the air increased significantly due to the discharge of fireworks. The enrichment factor method found that the metallic elements in the air were Sr,Zn,Ba,Cu,Pb,Sn and Sb and other elements like K,As. Compared with 2017,the enrichment of K,As,Sn and Sb elements showed a downward trend in 2018,and the height range corresponding to higher extinction degree decreased significantly,and the thickness of pollution zone decreased significantly. There was still a possible phenomenon of particulate matter sinking in the external pollution transmission. The concentration of fireworks in the surrounding large areas of rural,small towns and urban-rural areas will also lead to rapid deterioration of air quality in the urban areas surrounded by fireworks.
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