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国家重点生态功能区县域环境监测质量评价方法及应用示范
Study on Environmental Monitoring Quality Evaluation Method of National Key Ecological Function Area and Application in Typical Area
投稿时间:2019-01-22  修订日期:2019-05-15
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2020.01.01
中文关键词:  国家重点生态功能区  县域  环境监测质量  层次分析法  模糊综合评价法
英文关键词:national key ecological function area  county  environmental monitoring quality  analytic hierarchy process  fuzzy comprehensive evaluation
基金项目:天津市科技计划项目(16YFXTSF00380)
作者单位
武丹 天津市生态环境监测中心,天津300191 
王斌 天津市生态环境监测中心,天津300191 
孙聪 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
刘海江 中国环境监测总站,国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室,北京100012 
张赞 天津市生态环境监测中心,天津300191 
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中文摘要:
      以国家重点生态功能区县域环境监测质量评价为目标,综合应用德尔菲法、层次分析法和模糊综合评价法,构建了国家重点生态功能区县域环境监测质量评价方法,并确定了评价因子、权重系数、计算方法。该方法评价指标共分为三层:第一层为目标层,即国家重点生态功能区县域环境监测质量;第二层为准则层,包括人员及资质、现场监测、实验室管理、报告编制及数据上报;第三层为方案层,包括人员操作、持证上岗、资质认定、人员培训、水质布点采样流转情况、空气自动站运维情况、现场质控实施情况、实验室环境条件、样品试剂的保存与管理、仪器检定与校准、实验室质量控制实施情况、数据填报软件运行情况、监测报告规范性等13个评价要素。经矩阵一致性检验确定了各评价要素的权重,将该权重与各要素得分运算后得到县域环境监测质量评价结果。在此基础上,选取广东、山西、陕西、四川和青海等5个省份的15个国家重点生态功能区县域作为典型区开展了实地调研,并应用评价体系对其进行了监测质量等级评价。结果表明,15个典型县域中,环境监测质量等级为优的县域占13.3%,一般、较差的县域分别占66.7%、20%。 县域环境监测承担单位在资质、报告编制及数据上报方面表现较好,在现场监测、人员操作方面问题突出,在实验室管理方面有待 提升。
英文摘要:
      Focusing on national key ecological function area, based on the method of Delphi technique, analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, a system was established to assess the environmental monitoring quality, and the evaluation factors, weight coefficient and calculation method were determined. The system was disintegrated into three hierarchies, including 13 evaluation elements as follows:personnel operation, post holding certificate, monitoring qualification, training, sampling method and transfer, operation management of air automatic station, quality control measures for field monitoring, laboratory environment, reagent stability, instrument verification and calibration, quality control measures for laboratory, operation management of data software and normative of monitoring report. The weights of 13 evaluation elements were ascertained through verifying matrix accordance, and environmental monitoring quality evaluation results were calculated with the scores and weights of 13 evaluation elements. Fifteen typical counties in Guangdong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Qinghai Province were selected to develop the method verification and case study. The results showed that the proportion of counties in excellent grade was 13.3%, while in common grade, poorer grade were 66.7% and 20%, respectively. The certification, monitoring report quality and data transmission quality were satisfactory, while problems presented in field monitoring and personnel operation, and laboratory management remained to be improved.
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