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北京市典型废弃物焚烧源2010—2017年二NFDA1英排放特征和减排效果分析
Characteristics and Reduction Effectiveness of PCDD/Fs Emission from Typical Waste Incinerations in Beijing During 2010-2017
投稿时间:2018-12-10  修订日期:2019-03-14
DOI:10.19316 /j.issn.1002-6002.2019.06.07
中文关键词:  二NFDA1英  废弃物焚烧  排放因子  排放量  同类物分布  记忆效应
英文关键词:dioxins  waste incineration  emission factor  emission amount  congener distribution  memory effect
基金项目:科技部大气专项(2017YFC0209903)
作者单位
李常亮 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085 
程刚 北京市环境保护监测中心,北京 100048 
李金香 北京市环境保护监测中心,北京 100048 
张战平 北京市环境保护监测中心,北京 100048 
刘国瑞 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085 
刘文彬 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100085 
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中文摘要:
      分析2010—2017年北京市三类典型废弃物焚烧源的废气二NFDA1英排放监测数据,计算排放因子和排放量,评估减排政策成效,并分析不同排放源达标排放时同类物分布特征异同和变化规律,探讨影响排放的重要因素。结果表明: 5家焚烧源平均排放浓度为 0.008~0.069 ng/m3(以TEQ计,下同),废气二NFDA1英排放因子为 0.027~1.7 μg/t,2016年向空气中排放的二NFDA1英量为 0.002 5~0.058 g;生活垃圾、危险废物和医疗废物焚烧源的低、高氯代同类物质量分数比的平均值分别为接近于 0.5、大于0.5和小于0.5,危险废物焚烧源的 ∑PCDFs、∑PCDDs质量分数比的平均值大于2; 123478-HxCDF和123678-HxCDF质量浓度接近且线性相关,具有相近的生成机理和去除效率; I-TEQ变化趋势与∑PCDFs质量分数的变化趋势基本一致,活性炭喷射和布袋除尘的去除效率是影响二NFDA1英排放的重要因素之一;危险废物焚烧源HWI1随运行时间增加排放浓度增加,而及时更换烟道管壁有助于消除“记忆效应”的不良影响。
英文摘要:
      Based on PCDD/Fs emission data of three typical types of waste incinerations in Beijing from 2010 to 2017, the emission factors and emission amounts of PCDD/Fs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reduction policies. Furthermore, the similarities and differences of congener distribution characteristics among waste incinerations, which achieved standard discharge, were analyzed, and then the influencing factors of emission were discussed. It was indicated that the average emission concentrations of five waste incinerators were 0.008-0.069 ng/m3(as TEQ)and the PCDD/Fs emission factors with flue gas were 0.027-1.7 μg/t. In 2016, five waste incinerators emitted 0.0025-0.058 g to the atmosphere. The average mass fraction ratios of low/highly chlorinated substances congeners were close to 0.5 for municipal solid waste incinerators, more than 0.5 for hazardous waste incinerators and less than 0.5 for medical waste incinerator, while the average mass ratios of ∑PCDFs/ ∑PCDDs were more than 2 for hazardous waste incinerators. The formation mechanism and removal efficiency were similar for 123478-HxCDF and 123678-HxCDF, whose mass concentrations were close and linearly correlated. Moreover, the variation tendency of I-TEQ was basically consistent with mass fraction of ∑PCDFs, which indicated that the removal efficiency of activated carbon injection and bag filter was very important for PCDD/Fs emission reduction. The emission concentration of HWI1 increased with the increase of operation time, while timely replacement of flue pipe wall was useful to eliminate the memory effect.
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