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云南个旧土壤农作物重金属污染特征及潜在风险
Heavy Metal Pollution Characteristics and Potential Risks of Soil and Crops in Gejiu, Yunnan
投稿时间:2018-09-11  修订日期:2018-12-09
DOI:10.19316/j.issn.1002-6002.2019.05.08
中文关键词:  重金属污染  污染特征  评价  相关性
英文关键词:heavy metal pollution  pollution characteristics  evaluation  relevance
基金项目:云南省环保厅资助项目 “云南省典型重金属污染耕地对农作物影响研究”(云环规财[2016]7号)
作者单位
冉继伟 昆明理工大学环境科学与工程学院,云南 昆明650500 
宁平 昆明理工大学环境科学与工程学院,云南 昆明650500 
孙鑫 昆明理工大学环境科学与工程学院,云南 昆明650500 
梁东丽 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      在实地调查和实验室分析的基础上,对云南省个旧市大屯镇土壤农作物重金属污染状况进行了评价。结果显示:个旧市大屯镇调查区域土壤中Pb、Zn、Cd、As平均质量分数分别为943.5、454.8、3.4、302.1 mg/kg,分别为国家农用地土壤污染风险管控标准筛选值的7.8、1.8、11.2、10.1倍,土壤污染严重。土壤Cd的生态危害最强,As、Pb的生态危害次之,Zn表现为轻微的生态危害。从潜在生态危险指数来看,所采集的土壤样品皆表现为极强的生态危害。所采集农作物与食品安全国家标准对比,结果显示,大米中Pb、Cd和As的超标率分别为35%、55%和100%;玉米中Pb、Cd和As的超标率分别为13%、0%和0%;小苦菜Pb、Cd和As的超标率分别为100%、60%、100%;小米菜中Pb、Cd和As的超标率均为100%,蔬菜类的重金属超标情况相对于谷物类较为严重。研究区域土壤样品总量Pb、Zn与有效态皆呈极显著 正相关关系,总量Cd与有效态呈弱正相关关系,总量As与有效态表现为相关性不显著。
英文摘要:
      Based on field investigation and laboratory analysis, the heavy metal pollution of soil and crops in Datun Town, Gejiu City, Yunnan Province was evaluated. The results showed that the average contents of Pb, Zn, Cd and As in soil of Datun Town were 943.5,4.8,3.4,2.1 mg/kg, which were 7.8,1.8,1.2,0.1 times of the screened values of the national standards for controlling the risk of agricultural land pollution, respectively. The ecological risk of soil Cd was the strongest, and that of As and Pb was the second, Zn was a slight ecological hazard. From the perspective of potential ecological risk index, all the collected soil samples showed strong ecological hazards. Compared with the national food safety standards, the results showed that the over-standard rates of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and arsenic in rice were 35%, 55%, 100%, respectively; the over-standard rates of lead, cadmium and arsenic in maize were 13%, 0%, 0%, respectively; the over-standard rates of lead, cadmium and arsenic in bitter cabbage were 100%, 60%, 100%, respectively; and the over-standard rates of lead, cadmium and arsenic in Millet cabbage were all 100%. Generally speaking, the over-standard situation of heavy metals in vegetables was more serious than that in cereals. The total lead, zinc and available state of soil samples in the study area were significantly positively correlated, while the total cadmium and available state were weakly positively correlated, while the total arsenic and available state were not significantly correlated.
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